Sapphire Optics, Windows, Mirrors

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Sapphire Optics Windows, Mirrors, and Optical Flats

Sapphire Optical Window with Gridding and Bussbar
Sapphire Optical Window with EMI Gridding and Bussbar

Sapphire Optical Window with EMI Gridding and Bussbar

Close Up of EMI Gridding and Bussbar
Key Features

• Flat and wedged windows

• Ability to fabricate largest pieces

• ITAR registered facilities

• Quantities from single piece to high- volume OEM orders

• Customized thin-film coating designs

Sapphire is well known for its toughness. Sapphire's extreme hardness, high strength, and fracture toughness make it an excellent material choice for high-performance optics. However, these same characteristic make it challenging to fabricate.

ZYGO is a custom optics manufacturer – all sapphire optical flats ZYGO produces are made to the most exacting standards available anywhere. We consider ourselves to be not only a window supplier, but a true design and manufacturing partner. As a worldwide leader in metrology solutions, ZYGO guarantees that we will deliver sapphire optical flats that meet or exceed your most demanding specifications.


Sapphire's resistance to scratching and many types of chemical erosion, plus its ability to withstand pressurization and extreme temperature variations make it an excellent choice for use in military, aerospace, medical, industrial and consumer industries. Sapphire transmits over a broad wavelength region, making it a useful material for remote sensing technologies. A thin, tough sapphire optical flat can potentially replace other materials, which is of critical importance in weight-sensitive applications.

Material Knowledge

Various material production technologies produce sapphire with different specifications such as size, thickness, and internal quality. The raw material blank's crystal orientation determines certain window characteristics. For example, a-plane sheets have historically been available in larger sizes than c-plane sapphire. However, a-plane sapphire is birefringent, while c-plane is not. ZYGO is familiar with raw material characteristics and can help select the most appropriate material for the project at hand. We have a profound understanding of how raw material properties impact manufacturing processes and overall performance.


We have the unique ability to fabricate high-strength windows for tight transmitted wavefront and/or surface flatness, very good mid spatial frequency, very low surface roughness, and sub arc second parallelism. ZYGO employs controlled grinding and polishing processes to ensure the highest strength windows. We qualify our sapphire manufacturing processes with ring-on-ring and ASTM flexural tests.


ZYGO has years of experience designing thin film coatings for UV, VIS, MWIR, and multispectral applications. We maintain an extensive library of designs and are also experienced with coating windows requiring EMI grids.

Specifications  (subject to change without notice)

Crystal Orientation   C-Plane or A-Plane standard; other orientations available

Size Maximum size and thickness is dependent on material supplier processes and availability.

Dimensional Tolerance ± 25 µm length, width or diameter typical with standard edge finish, ± 10 µm upon request

Thickness Tolerance ± 0.100 mm standard; ±0.010 mm with special processing

Wavelength Transmission Material source and thickness dependent

Aspect Ratio Up to 50:1

Clear Aperture (CA) 95% of central area standard

Surface Flatness,
Typical at 633 nm*
C Plane 0.05λ RMS
A Plane 0.25λ RMS

Transmitted Wavefront
Error (TWE), Typical **
A Plane ≤ 0.05λ RMS
C Plane ≤ 0.01λ RMS

Parallelism ≤ 1 arcsecond

Wedge Angle Controllable to ≤ 1 arcsecond, matched window sets available

Surface Quality
80-50 to 10-5 per MIL-PRF-13830B

Surface Roughness ≤ 10 Å RMS typical, < 5 Å available

Edge Finish 220 grit standard to 600 grit controlled process, edge and bevel polishing available

Coating High reflectance (HR) metallic and dielectric, antireflective (AR), filters, custom designs

Coating Quality RTCA/DO-160D, MIL-C-675, MIL-C-48497, MIL-M-1508, MIL-C-14806, MIL-STD-810, etc.

Material Testing Ring-on-ring

High Power Applications Special controlled fabrication processes, laser damage testing

Marking Laser, ink or non-permanent

Quantities Single piece, prototype or OEM volume

Packaging Nitrogen purged, cleanroom packaging available

ITAR Registration Yes

Locations All products manufactured in the United States

Quality Management System ISO 9001:2008

*   Flatness is material plane, aspect ratio, and coating dependent.
** TWE is dependent on material homogeneity, fabrication and coating.

Inquiry/Quote Form – Sapphire Optics
Please use the form below to contact us with any questions you have regarding sapphire optics, or any of ZYGO's optical products, services, or capabilities. You may send any additional information, including specifications and/or prints, to:

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For the past 10 years, ZYGO has been the supplier of choice to Thales UK's optronics business for its sapphire windows needs. Thales UK has consistently found ZYGO able to deliver high performance, high quality windows on time and on budget in support of our Naval projects.
– Thales UK
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