A powerful technique for interference fringe analysis uses tunable light sources. Originally developed to solve the problem of phase shifting in large aperture systems, the technique has evolved to the simultaneous measurement of multiple surfaces and optical thickness of optical assemblies and components. Here we review the principles and current state of the art for swept-wavelength interferometry for optical testing, including recent advances in digital holographic refocusing and environmental robustness using model-based data analysis. Applications for swept-wavelength interferometry span the full optical metrology space; we provide examples of the measurement of glass substrates for rigid data storage drives to planar waveguides for augmented and mixed reality.